The thirty years war 161848 was the most destructive european conflict prior to the twentieth century. This revised edition of geoffrey parkers text incorporates recent research whilst retaining the range and depth of coverage of the first edition. History of europe history of europe the thirty years war. There is, to my knowledge, no other book of this sort in english. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major habsburg powers on its borders, catholic france. This is a matter of some importance in the fictional works dealing with the war. The thirty years war, which stemmed from a religious conflict between protestants and catholics, did in fact last thirty years, from 16181648. Project muse anglogerman cultural relations and the. Continuing where the author left off in battles of the thirty years war, this companion volume details the military aspects of the final years of this important early modern conflict.
Thirty years war 161848, in european history, a series of wars fought by various. The thirty years war was a war fought primarily in central europe between 1618 and 1648. The holy roman empire and europe, 161848 written by ronald g. The thirty years war is considered within its own context, rather than merely as a poor relation to the linear or napoleonic periods. From the chaos of the battlefield emerged new rules some driven by the very pragmatic need to conserve energy, others by religious dictate.
But it was more than just a frenzy of wanton atrocities. It continues to provide a narrative and analytical account of the war. The thirty years war 1618 1648, was fought throughout europe, though focused primarily in what is now germany. The thirty years war was a very confusing conflict on many levels, and to attempt any account of it in barely 200 pages is almost foolhardy. What were some of the most important results of the thirty. But this book succeeds, at least in setting the stage and following the people and politics. Somewhere i read that it set back civilization and development 200 years in germany. The origin of the conflict is thought to mostly be religious in nature, due to the friction between the protestants and the catholics at the time, though political disputes also had a. Period of european colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first european sailing around the cape of good hope and ended around the time of the american revolution in 1776. During the reformation, germany was part of the holy roman empire, a vast domain made up of hundreds of independent fiefs. Italy in 163031, powerfully narrated in alessandro manzonis celebrated novel the.
The thirty years war was a 17thcentury religious conflict fought primarily in central europe. At seven in the morning on may 20, 1631, 18,000 soldiers loyal to the holy roman emperor ferdinand ii stormed the ancient german city of magdeburg. For those who experienced it, the peace was nothing less than a miracle. Causes and effects of the thirty years war onsible for the war lasting as long as it did. This uniquely comprehensive collection of translated documents covers all aspects of the war in the words and images of those who directly experienced it, from the key. What are the best history books for the 30 years war. Sweden did not enter the war for religious reasons at all. It reduced the population of central europe by around a quarter and left thousands of towns and villages in ruins. The thirty years war began with a naive ruler asserting these rights in an area that only partially belonged to the empire, though the emperor reacted harshly to this and used it as a reason. The most significant results of the war include population decline in europe due.
The emblematic meditations on the restored peace in germany portrays the immense sense of relief at the wars conclusion. The thirty years war was a european continental war that took place from 16181648 thirty years. Threading her way through one of the most complex and fraught eras of european history, wedgwood gives all who have followed her an object lesson in. To mark the fact that 2018 is a very special anniversary, and because i have to write a book about the event anyway, i decided to turn my podcasting attentions to the thirty years war 161848 once again. Despite its age first published in 1938, this is still one of the best english language narratives of this most complex of wars, tracing the intricate dance of diplomacy and combat that involved all of europe in the fate of germany.
It is also said that these wars were separate but they happened to take place at times that formed a sequence thus collectively they were named as thirty years war. The thirty years war was a 17thcentury religious conflict fought. Phase 1 the bohemian phase, 16181625 began as a religious civil war in bohemia between the catholic league and the protestant union. Wedgewoods book is the only comphrensive study of the thirty years war, as it was actually a series of wars with the reformation in the background along with the convoluted politics of 15th century europe. The most significant results of the war include population decline in europe due to disease and famine, religious reformation, an.
The war of the mantuan succession 162831 was a peripheral part of the thirty years war. Europe in 1618 was riven between protestants and catholics, bourbon and hapsburgas well as empires, kingdoms, and countless principalities. Without any question the period of the thirty years war, from 1618 to 1648, was one of. The range of confessions in germany, 1650, as a result of the thirty years. One of the longest wars in the early modern history of man was the thirty years war in europe. Peter wilsons book is a major work, the first new history of the thirty years war. Nielsen book data summary a detailed study of the military aspects of this important early modern conflict. The thirty years war 16181648 may have been the most destructive european conflict prior to the 20th century. The thirty years war, a series of wars fought by european nations for various reasons, ignited in 1618 over an attempt by the king of bohemia the future holy roman emperor ferdinand ii to. A major impact of the thirty years war was the extensive destruction of entire. That depends on your current knowledge of the subject, and the level of detail youd like to have. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content anglogerman cultural relations and the thirty years war garold n.
One of its enduring results was 19thcentury pangermanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided. The campaigns covered in this volume include the defeat of the bohemian and german protestants 16181623, the danish war 16251629, the victories of the swedes under gustavus adolphus 16301632, and the. The thirty years war 161848, though preeminently a german war, was also of great importance for the history of the whole of europe, not only because nearly all the countries of western europe took part in it, but also on account of its connection with the other great european wars of the same era and on account of its final results. Death came during the battles, from disease and the rampaging of the armies through the. Best books on the thirty years war five books expert. The continental conflict arose out of political and religious issues in the holy roman empire and europe as. The first period of the war imperial triumphs 16181630 in 1618, the protestants of bohemia refused the bohemian crown to the archduke ferdinand, and chose for their. Thirty years war students britannica kids homework help. Brothers francesco iv 1612, ferdinando 161226 and vincenzo ii 162627, the last three dukes of mantua from the direct line, had all died. Thirty years war the thirty years war 16181648 was fought primarily in what. Most of the fighting took place in the holy roman empire, although the war grew to include european powers outside of the empire. What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. Its destructive campaigns and battles occurred over most of europe, and, when it ended, the map of europe had been irrevocably changed. Wilson is doorstopper of a book the thirty years war edited by geoffrey parker is much shorter than the wilson text, but worth checking out geoff mortimers wallenstein.
The thirty years war, a combination of numerous religious, political and economic factors, was probably the most defining moment in european history until the first world war, and so it should be ripe with royal drama, thrilling exploits, military spectacles and political intrigue. The effects of the war are poignantly shown in the destruction of family. The thirty years war was a war full of bloody, while battles and glorious victories of each party were so temporal, and then the political situation was soon flipped over. The thirty years war 161848 is a central episode in early modern history.
The thirty years was lays the groundwork for understanding europe prior to the napoleonic era. The conclusion of the thirty years war in 1648 marked the end of the early modern religious wars. The thirty years war 16181648 remains a defining event in early modern. There in 1618 the protestant nobility refused to recognize. The political motives became more and more prevalent when sweden entered the war to help the protestant cause. Books on the thirty years war 1618 1648 score a book s total score is based on multiple factors, including the number of people who have voted for it and how highly those voters ranked the book. The peace of augsburg, also called the augsburg settlement, was a treaty between charles v, holy roman emperor, and the schmalkaldic league, signed in september 1555 at the imperial city of augsburg. The protestant reformation began with luthers posting of his 95 thesis and lasted until 1648, after the thirty years war. The war originated with dual crises at the continents centre. Winner of the society for military history distinguished book award 2011. Dame wedgwood was the third woman to be appointed member of the order of merit on the strength of her biographies of among. For the avid reader of military history, the thirty years war has everythingeuropean realpolitik, religious conflict, dramatic characters, military innovation and violence enough to satisfy the most lurid imagination or touch the coldest heart. After angry protestants tossed three representatives of the holy roman empire out the window of the royal castle in prague, world war spread from bohemia with relentless abandon, drawing powers from spain to sweden into a nightmarish world of famine. The most important of these was sweden, which became, under gustavus adolphus, the empires unlikely scourge.
The thirty years war in europe began in 1618 and ended in 1648. Did the imperial military cause suffer as a result. Find all the books, read about the author, and more. William of nassau, prince of orange, 15331584, which won the. While lacking in detail, the book does a fairly good job of. It remains one of the longest and most brutal wars in human history, with more than 8 million. The best books on the thirty years war fought in europe 16181648, recommended by. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Its casus belli was the extinction of the direct male line of the house of gonzaga in december 1627. Years war although not without significant geopolitical effects for europe. The horrific series of conflicts known as the thirty years war 161848 tore the heart out of europe, killing perhaps a quarter of all germans and laying waste to whole areas of central europe to such a degree that many towns and regions never recovered.
From the introduction by anthony grafton this is a masterful narrative, written by one of the great exponents of that alltoorare skill. What were the results of the thirty years war answers. The thirty years war oxford academic oxford university press. This book is a great overview i stress overview of the climactic struggle known as the thirty years war. Thirty years war 161848, in european history, a series of wars fought by various nations for various reasons, including religious, dynastic, territorial, and commercial rivalries. Europe during the thirty years war book i of ii illustrated. What were some of the most important results of the thirty years war. In this lesson we explore the thirty years war and the subsequent peace of westphalia. Asch, a professor of early modern history at the university of osnabruck, germany. Helfferich has done a remarkable job in assembling texts that convey the sweep of the war, the religious and constitutional questions involved, the international involvement of especially denmark, sweden, and france, and the turbulent misery that the war produced, especially in the holy. It officially ended the religious struggle between the two groups and made the legal division of christianity permanent within the holy roman empire, allowing rulers to choose either lutheranism or. If youre looking for an overview, the entry in my favorite singlevolume military history book, lynn montruss war through the ages is excellent, i. The thirty years war saw some of the most violent and bloodiest episodes in history.83 751 1084 912 222 243 1288 777 1400 1259 1146 566 858 1274 348 964 740 1006 1041 1270 307 1387 96 1202 831 1210 575 1468 100 232 907